The Significance of Lights and Firecrackers. [40], The artisan Hindu and Sikh community celebrates the fourth day as the Vishwakarma puja day. Diwali is usually celebrated twenty days after the Dashera (Dasara, Dasain) festival, with Dhanteras, or the regional equivalent, marking the first day of the festival when celebrants prepare by cleaning their homes and making decorations on the floor, such as rangolis. [139] According to Kinsley, the ritual use of cow dung, a common fertiliser, is an agricultural motif and a celebration of its significance to annual crop cycles. Diwali wird am meisten in Indien, Sri Lanka und Nepal gefeiert. However, the focus of the Jain Diwali remains the dedication to Mahavira. [129], On the night of Diwali, rituals across much of India are dedicated to Lakshmi to welcome her into their cleaned homes and bring prosperity and happiness for the coming year. [105], On the second day of Diwali, Hanuman Puja is performed in some parts of India especially in Gujarat. Hindus rund um die Welt feiern Diwali mit Geschenken, Feuerwerken und Festessen im Familien- und Freundeskreis. [16][82][83] Hindus from the Braj region in northern India, parts of Assam, as well as southern Tamil and Telugu communities view Diwali as the day the god Krishna overcame and destroyed the evil demon king Narakasura, in yet another symbolic victory of knowledge and good over ignorance and evil. He has written several books about Hinduism for children and young adults. [73][74] Another early 13th-century Sanskrit stone inscription, written in the Devanagari script, has been found in the north end of a mosque pillar in Jalore, Rajasthan evidently built using materials from a demolished Jain temple. [90][91], A scholar of Jain and Nivethan, states that in Jain tradition, Diwali is celebrated in observance of "Mahavira Nirvana Divas", the physical death and final nirvana of Mahavira. When the heart has considerably hardened, only a continuous celebration of Deepavali can rekindle the urgent need of turning away from the ruinous path of hatred. Each of the four days in the festival of Diwali is marked with a different tradition. [62][63][note 4][note 5], Publications from the British colonial era also made mention of Diwali, such as the note on Hindu festivals published in 1799 by Sir William Jones, a philologist known for his early observations on Sanskrit and Indo-European languages. Dipavali ( दीवाली, dīvālī; दीपावली dīpāvalī) genannt, bedeutet „Lichterkette” und ist das populärste indische Fest. Food is a major focus with families partaking in feasts and sharing mithai. Zu wissen, wie man Diwali feiert, ist für viele von Interesse, da es eines der wichtigsten Festivals der Hindus ist, das in vielen Teilen der Welt, insbesondere in Indien, gefeiert wird. [120], The third day is the height of the festival,[121] and coincides with the last day of the dark fortnight of the lunar month. In Südindien glauben die Menschen, dass Krischna an Diwali einen Dämonen besiegte, der Tausende von Frauen in Gefangenschaft gehalten hatte. [23] [note 13] The looms, tools of trade, machines and workplaces are cleaned and prayers offered to these livelihood means. The day before Diwali is remembered as Naraka Chaturdasi, the day on which Narakasura was killed by Krishna. During the festival, Hindus, Jains and Sikhs illuminate their homes, temples and work spaces with diyas, candles and lanterns[14] [135], The celebrations and rituals of the Jains and the Sikhs are similar to those of the Hindus where social and community bonds are renewed. Major temples and homes are decorated with lights, festive foods shared with all, friends and relatives remembered and visited with gifts. Viele Menschen bezahlen zu diesem Anlass alte Schulden, legen sich neue Kleidung zu und reinigen ihre Wohnungen. In each legend, myth, and story of Deepawali lies the significance of the victory of good over evil. [104] According to some observers, this traditional celebration by Newar Buddhists in Nepal, through the worship of Lakshmi and Vishnu during Diwali, is not syncretism but rather a reflection of the freedom within Mahayana Buddhist tradition to worship any deity for their worldly betterment. [113] Some communities, particularly those active in Ayurvedic and health-related professions, pray or perform havan rituals to Dhanvantari on Dhanteras. [107] Diwali is also marked with fireworks and the decoration of floors with rangoli designs. Critics stated that the ruling was judicial over-reach and a bias against Hindu culture, while supporters stated that it would be beneficial to public health. [121] Family members light up firecrackers, which some interpret as a way to ward off all evil spirits and the inauspicious, as well as add to the festive mood. [47][122], The youngest members in the family visit their elders, such as grandparents and other senior members of the community, on this day. [13][126][127] After the puja, people go outside and celebrate by lighting up patakhe (fireworks) together, and then share a family feast and mithai (sweets, desserts). [8][9][10] One of the most popular festivals of Hinduism, Diwali symbolizes the spiritual "victory of light over darkness, good over evil, and knowledge over ignorance". Zu den Diwali Feierlichkeiten erlebt man Indiens kulturelle Vielfalt und geographische Größe mit über einer Milliarde Einwohnern. [119], As the evening approaches, celebrants will wear new clothes or their best outfits, teenage girls and women, in particular, wear saris and jewellery. One tradition starts a new month from the new moon, while the other starts it from the full moon. Ik ben verkleed voor Diwali, man. Unlike some other festivals, the Hindu typically do not fast during the five-day long Diwali including Lakshmi Pujan, rather they feast and share the bounties of the season at their workplaces, community centres, temples and homes. Audioaussprache auf Englisch anhören. [79], As per another popular tradition, in the Dvapara Yuga period, Krishna, an avatar of Vishnu, killed the demon Narakasura, who was evil king of Pragjyotishapura, near present-day Assam and released 16000 girls held captive by Narakasura. The Jain Diwali celebrated in many parts of India has similar practices to the Hindu Diwali, such as the lighting of lamps and the offering of prayers to Lakshmi. This includes Govardhan Puja, a celebration by Vaishnavites on the fourth day of Diwali. [136], This day ritually celebrates the bond between the wife and husband,[139] and in some Hindu communities, husbands will celebrate this with gifts to their wives. Others use it as a celebration of her birthday, as Lakshmi is said to have been born on the new-moon day of Kartik. Employers, too, purchase new clothes for their employees. On this day, Hindu merchants in North India open their new account books and pray for success and prosperity during the coming year. People buy new clothes for the family. Shri Laxmi wird in Indien an Diwali verehrt, weil ein großer Rakshasa (Dämon), namens Narakasura getötet wurde und auch deshalb, weil Shri Laxmi zur selben Zeit dem Meer entstiegen ist – lange, lange Zeit zuvor. "Deepawali" and "Dipawali" redirect here. [124] At dusk, family members gather for the Lakshmi Pujan,[124] although prayers will also be offered to other deities, such as Ganesha, Saraswati, Rama, Lakshmana, Sita, Hanuman, or Kubera. The name Diwali comes from a Sanskrit word that means “row of lights.” The holiday is often called the Festival of Lights. [143] In historic times, this was a day in autumn when brothers would travel to meet their sisters, or invite their sister's family to their village to celebrate their sister-brother bond with the bounty of seasonal harvests. [109][110] Many towns organise community parades and fairs with parades or music and dance performances in parks. [21] The second day is Naraka Chaturdashi. In other regions, parents invite a newly married daughter, or son, together with their spouses to a festive meal and give them gifts. [123][92], The day after Diwali is the first day of the bright fortnight of the luni-solar calendar. [113] On this day, many Hindus clean their homes and business premises. [note 18], The use of fireworks also causes an increase in the number of burn injuries in India during Diwali. Each day of Diwali has its own tale to tell. Und abends geht’s erst richtig ab: Nachdem der typische Zündeler seine Böller alle schon am Vormittag verschossen hat, startet die Mehrheit jetzt ihr Feuerwerk! It falls on the 15th day of the Hindu month of Kartik, so it varies every year. [130] Vaishnava families recite Hindu legends of the victory of good over evil and the return of hope after despair on the Diwali night, where the main characters may include Rama, Krishna, Vamana or one of the avatars of Vishnu, the divine husband of Lakshmi. [91] According to Goldstein, these are then shaped into various forms, such as laddus, barfis, halwa, kachoris, shrikhand, and sandesh, rolled and stuffed delicacies, such as karanji, shankarpali, maladu, susiyam, pottukadalai. It is believed that on this day, Goddess Parvati played dice with her husband Lord Shiva. Regionale Varianten von Diwali. In the lead-up to Diwali, celebrants will prepare by cleaning, renovating, and decorating their homes and workplaces with diyas (oil lamps) and rangolis. [68][69][note 7] Examples include a 10th-century Rashtrakuta empire copper plate inscription of Krsna III (939–967 CE) that mentions Dipotsava,[70] and a 12th-century mixed Sanskrit-Kannada Sinda inscription discovered in the Isvara temple of Dharwad in Karnataka where the inscription refers to the festival as a "sacred occasion". Es ist ein religiöses Fest im Hinduismus. The third day is the day of Lakshmi Puja and the darkest night of the traditional month. [59], Islamic historians of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire era also mentioned Diwali and other Hindu festivals. An Diwali selbst wird neue Kleidung angezogen und man macht sich schick, geht in einen Tempel, betet und feiert anschließend mit der Familie oder in der Nachbarschaft. A sister ritually feeding her brother on Bhai Duj-Diwali. Danach sind wir zu einem Tempel gefahren, der im Wald gelegen ist. [169][170] Barack Obama became the first president to personally attend Diwali at the White House in 2009. [139], The last day of the festival is called Bhai Duj (literally "brother's day"[142]), Bhau Beej, Bhai Tilak or Bhai Phonta. Ich bin zu Surbhie, einer Freundin aus meiner Klasse gekommen. It is a time when people mingle about in joy and embrace one another. Was sind die fünf Tage von Diwali? In Nordindien feiert man die Rückkehr von Gott Rama, der nach 14 Jahren im Exil endlich wieder in die Hauptstadt Ayodhya zurückkehrte und den Dämonen Ravana besiegte. If you are away from the sights and sounds of Diwali, light a diya, sit quietly, shut your eyes, withdraw the senses, concentrate on this supreme light, and illuminate the soul. [41][108] According to David Kinsley, an Indologist and scholar of Indian religious traditions particularly in relation to goddess worship, Lakshmi symbolises three virtues: wealth and prosperity, fertility and abundant crops, as well as good fortune. Halwasind kleine quadratische Süßigkeiten, die mit Nüssengefüllt und bunt verziert sind. Subhamoy Das is the co-author of "Applied Hinduism: Ancient Wisdom for Today's World." It celebrates the sister-brother bond, similar in spirit to Raksha Bandhan but it is the brother that travels to meet the sister and her family. [180][181] As crop productivity per hectare has increased with mechanised harvesting, this has led to the practice becoming more widespread in the northern and northwestern regions of India in the months when Diwali is observed.

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