Hans von Müller debunked the genealogy put forward by Nietzsche's sister in favor of Polish noble heritage. It was used to overcome the slave's sense of inferiority before their (better-off) masters. Values involve a rank-ordering of things, and so are inseparable from approval and disapproval, yet it was dissatisfaction that prompted men to seek refuge in other-worldliness and embrace other-worldly values. Other than Aphorism 36 in Beyond Good and Evil, where he raised a question regarding will to power as being in the material world, they argue, it was only in his notes (unpublished by himself), where he wrote about a metaphysical will to power. J.L. [200] Its cause, in his opinion, was the growth in European nationalism and the endemic "jealousy and hatred" of Jewish success. Bobrowicz, Lipsk 1839–1845: herb Radwan (t. 8 s. 27–29)", "Nietzsche and Lou Andreas-Salomé: Chronicle of a Relationship 1882", "Historicizing Nietzsche? [299] Nietzsche had a distinct appeal for many Zionist thinkers around the start of the 20th century, most notable being Ahad Ha'am,[300] Hillel Zeitlin,[301] Micha Josef Berdyczewski, A.D. Gordon[302] and Martin Buber, who went so far as to extoll Nietzsche as a "creator" and "emissary of life". He thought that the supermen would be stronger than normal humans, and not restricted by other people's ideas of right and wrong. "Nietzsche and the Philology of the Future" (Stanford University Press, 2000). Nietzsche asked Rée to propose marriage to Salomé, which she rejected. He is known to have tried using the Hansen Writing Ball, a contemporary typewriter device. Friedrich Nietzsche ist einer der bekanntesten Philosophen der Geschichte, aber nicht nur aufgrund seiner Arbeiten. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten Aussprache und relevante Diskussionen Kostenloser Vokabeltrainer [337] His deepening of the romantic-heroic tradition of the nineteenth century, for example, as expressed in the ideal of the "grand striver" appears in the work of thinkers from Cornelius Castoriadis to Roberto Mangabeira Unger. 1994. Nietzsche argued that the idea of equality allowed slaves to overcome their own conditions without despising themselves. Apollo represents harmony, progress, clarity, logic and the principle of individuation, whereas Dionysus represents disorder, intoxication, emotion, ecstasy and unity (hence the omission of the principle of individuation). Milkowski, Marcin. On 13 May, in Lucerne, when Nietzsche was alone with Salomé, he earnestly proposed marriage to her again, which she rejected. [197] He indicated his desire to bring about a new, more naturalistic source of value in the vital impulses of life itself. However, a recent study (Huang 2019) shows that although it is true that in 1888 Nietzsche wanted some of his notes burned, the 'burning' story indicates little about his project on the will to power, not only because only 11 'aphorisms' saved from the flames were ultimately incorporated into The Will to Power (this book contains 1067 'aphorisms'), but also because these abandoned notes mainly focus on topics such as the critique of morality while touching upon the 'feeling of power' only once. p. 11 of his transl. [37], A decade after World War II, there was a revival of Nietzsche's philosophical writings thanks to translations and analyses by Walter Kaufmann and R.J. Hollingdale. The name derives from the forename Nikolaus, abbreviated to Nick; assimilated with the Slavic Nitz; it first became Nitsche and then Nietzsche. He also shared Nietzsche's view of tragedy. [171] Michel Foucault commented that his own book Madness and Civilization should be read "under the sun of the great Nietzschean inquiry". He had some following among left-wing Germans in the 1890s; in 1894–1895 German conservatives wanted to ban his work as subversive. [119], In 1898 and 1899, Nietzsche suffered at least two strokes. Between 1873 and 1876, he published four separate long essays: "David Strauss: the Confessor and the Writer", "On the Use and Abuse of History for Life", "Schopenhauer as Educator", and "Richard Wagner in Bayreuth". DEUTSCH “Der Phantast verleugnet die Wahrheit vor sich, der Lügner nur vor anderen.” Autor: Friedrich Nietzsche Thema: Wahrheit, Lüge, Genie. Nietzsche and Salomé spent the summer together in Tautenburg in Thuringia, often with Nietzsche's sister Elisabeth as a chaperone. [314] The Nazis made selective use of Nietzsche's philosophy. He attacked most of the moral ideas that were popular at the time because he did not believe that there are any real facts about what is right or wrong. "[188] Just as "there is an order of rank between man and man", there is also an order of rank "between morality and morality. Nietzsche called for exceptional people not to be ashamed in the face of a supposed morality-for-all, which he deems to be harmful to the flourishing of exceptional people. 1987. [126][127][128] Germany had not yet been unified into a nation-state, but Nietzsche was born a citizen of Prussia, which was then part of the German Confederation. "[139] Nietzsche believed his name might have been Germanized, in one letter claiming, "I was taught to ascribe the origin of my blood and name to Polish noblemen who were called Niëtzky and left their home and nobleness about a hundred years ago, finally yielding to unbearable suppression: they were Protestants. Jahrhunderts. On his 44th birthday, after completing Twilight of the Idols and The Antichrist, he decided to write the autobiography Ecce Homo. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Friedrich_Nietzsche&oldid=7335248, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. Supposedly, one day in the city of Turin, Italy, he saw a horse being whipped by its owner and ran to save it, hugging it around the throat. [61] In June 1865, at the age of 20, Nietzsche wrote to his sister Elisabeth, who was deeply religious, a letter regarding his loss of faith. With the publication in 1878 of Human, All Too Human (a book of aphorisms ranging from metaphysics to morality to religion), a new style of Nietzsche's work became clear, highly influenced by Afrikan Spir's Thought and Reality[79] and reacting against the pessimistic philosophy of Wagner and Schopenhauer. The death of God may lead beyond bare perspectivism to outright nihilism, the belief that nothing has any inherent importance and that life lacks purpose. ESPAÑOL “El imaginativo niega la verdad ante sí mismo. Although most commentators regard his breakdown as unrelated to his philosophy, Georges Bataille dropped dark hints ("'Man incarnate' must also go mad")[111] and René Girard's postmortem psychoanalysis posits a worshipful rivalry with Richard Wagner. Krell, David Farrell, and Donald L. Bates. [59] In addition, Ludwig Feuerbach's The Essence of Christianity influenced young Nietzsche with its argument that people created God, and not the other way around. The Wagners brought Nietzsche into their most intimate circle—including Franz Liszt, of whom Nietzsche colloquially described: "Liszt or the art of running after women! Overbeck and Gast decided to withhold publishing The Antichrist and Ecce Homo because of their more radical content. This leads to his conclusion that European culture, from the time of Socrates, had always been only Apollonian, thus decadent and unhealthy. Cf. Wilhelm, Bismarck, and all anti-Semites abolished. Ausspracheführer: Lernen Sie Friedrich Nietzsche auf Deutsch, Englisch, Französisch, Spanisch, Dänisch muttersprachlich auszusprechen. "[201], The statement "God is dead," occurring in several of Nietzsche's works (notably in The Gay Science), has become one of his best-known remarks. [184] To be "good" was to be happy and to have the things related to happiness: wealth, strength, health, power, etc. Nietzsche characterized this ascetic attitude as a "will to nothingness". He owed the awakening of his philosophical interest to reading Schopenhauer's The World as Will and Representation and later admitted that Schopenhauer was one of the few thinkers whom he respected, dedicating the essay "Schopenhauer as Educator" in the Untimely Meditations to him. [113][114] Leonard Sax suggested the slow growth of a right-sided retro-orbital meningioma as an explanation of Nietzsche's dementia;[115] Orth and Trimble postulated frontotemporal dementia[116] while other researchers have proposed a hereditary stroke disorder called CADASIL. For Nietzsche, a fundamental shift took place during human history from thinking in terms of "good and bad" toward "good and evil. "Nietzsche's Quarrel With Euripides". Ausgewählte Korrespondenz. [168] He notes that without the Apollonian, the Dionysian lacks the form and structure to make a coherent piece of art, and without the Dionysian, the Apollonian lacks the necessary vitality and passion. [332] Carl Jung was also influenced by Nietzsche. On 3 January 1889, Nietzsche suffered a mental breakdown. Nietzsche first proposed the idea of eternal return in a parable in Section 341 of The Gay Science, and also in the chapter "Of the Vision and the Riddle" in Thus Spoke Zarathustra, among other places. His symbolism of the world as "child play" marked by amoral spontaneity and lack of definite rules was appreciated by Nietzsche. "[137], Nietzsche never married. At least toward the end of his life, Nietzsche believed his ancestors were Polish. [70], Nietzsche's 1870 projected doctoral thesis, "Contribution toward the Study and the Critique of the Sources of Diogenes Laertius" ("Beiträge zur Quellenkunde und Kritik des Laertius Diogenes"), examined the origins of the ideas of Diogenes Laërtius. Homer's Wettkampf: Homer's Contest: Wenn man von Humanität redet, so liegt die Vorstellung zu Grunde, es möge das sein, was den Menschen von der Natur abscheidet und auszeichnet. At the beginning of 1888, Brandes delivered in Copenhagen one of the first lectures on Nietzsche's philosophy. He also quoted Mahler himself, and adds that he was influenced by Nietzsche's conception and affirmative approach to nature, which Mahler presented in his Third Symphony using Zarathustra's roundelay. He thought people should create their own facts about morality. "Letter to Heinrich von Stein, December 1882,", "Letter to Georg Brandes, 10 April 1888,", sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFLampert1986 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFNietzsche1888c (. Salomé's mother took her to Rome when Salomé was 21. 1908. 1981. [177] This view has acquired the name perspectivism. [87] Arriving in Leipzig, (Germany) in October, Salomé and Rée separated from Nietzsche after a falling-out between Nietzsche and Salomé, in which Salomé believed that Nietzsche was desperately in love with her. He was only 24 years old and had neither completed his doctorate nor received a teaching certificate ("habilitation"). William Heinemann, Feb 25, 2015 - 61 pages. [184] A favorite motto of Nietzsche, taken from Pindar, reads: "Become what you are. ", Nietzsche, Friedrich. this edition of the complete works of Friedrich Nietzsche. An example of the impact of this idea can be seen in the book Patterns of Culture, where anthropologist Ruth Benedict acknowledges Nietzschean opposites of "Apollonian" and "Dionysian" as the stimulus for her thoughts about Native American cultures. Dod, Elmar, "Der unheimlichste Gast. We are deprived of strength when we feel pity. [149] There is the claim that Nietzsche's homosexuality was widely known in the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society, with Nietzsche's friend Paul Deussen claiming that "he was a man who had never touched a woman. Example in this ebook. The three traveled with Salomé's mother through Italy and considered where they would set up their "Winterplan" commune. It is debated among scholars whether Hitler read Nietzsche, although if he did, it may not have been extensively. For I am such and such a person. [297][298] The Dreyfus affair provided a contrasting example of his reception: the French antisemitic Right labelled the Jewish and leftist intellectuals who defended Alfred Dreyfus as "Nietzscheans". Zarathustra contrasts the overman with the last man of egalitarian modernity (the most obvious example being democracy), an alternative goal humanity might set for itself. People often forget the simple fact that the Nachlass and The Will to Power are two different things.[123]. "[245], Nietzsche expressed admiration for 17th-century French moralists such as La Rochefoucauld, La Bruyère and Vauvenargues,[246] as well as for Stendhal. The main theme in The Birth of Tragedy is that the fusion of Dionysian and Apollonian Kunsttriebe ("artistic impulses") forms dramatic arts or tragedies. In the end, a past student of his, Heinrich Köselitz or Peter Gast, became a private secretary to Nietzsche. "Nietzsche, Decadence, and Regeneration in France, 1891–1895.". He named the person who would do this someday a "superman" (or Übermensch" in German). [254] Notably, he also read some of the posthumous works of Charles Baudelaire,[255] Tolstoy's My Religion, Ernest Renan's Life of Jesus, and Fyodor Dostoyevsky's Demons. Beginning with Human, All Too Human in 1878, Nietzsche published one book or major section of a book each year until 1888, his last year of writing; that year, he completed five. ", Walter Kaufmann, intr. It does so by making out slave weakness, for example, to be a matter of choice, by relabeling it as "meekness". Also, last year I was crucified by the German doctors in a very drawn-out manner. [64], In 1867, Nietzsche signed up for one year of voluntary service with the Prussian artillery division in Naumburg. Nietzsche died in 1900. The complete works of Friedrich Nietzsche. On the basis of it, many commentators[202] regard Nietzsche as an atheist; others (such as Kaufmann) suggest that this statement reflects a more subtle understanding of divinity. According to a letter he wrote to Peter Gast, this was due to his "attitude towards Christianity and the concept of God".[92]. [170] Carl Jung has written extensively on the dichotomy in Psychological Types. He later wrote several books of philosophy. Friedrich Nietzsche (English Edition) Georg Brandes. Pity makes suffering contagious.[195]. For other uses, see, Philosophers and theologians associated with, A strict example of a cause-and-effect mismatch, with regard to the God-creator as the cause and our concepts as the effects, is perhaps not fully stressed in the ". [106] In January 1889, they proceeded with the planned release of Twilight of the Idols, by that time already printed and bound. [335][336] Nietzsche's writings have also been influential to some advancers of Accelerationist thought through his influence on Deleuze and Guattari. "[74] Nietzsche scholar Joachim Köhler [de] has attempted to explain Nietzsche's life history and philosophy by claiming that he was homosexual. Nietzsche asserted that what made people great was not the content of their beliefs, but the act of valuing. He proposed to Lou Salomé three times and each time was rejected. Zarathustra's gift of the overman is given to mankind not aware of the problem to which the overman is the solution. Pronunciation of Friedrich nietzsche with 8 audio pronunciations, 1 meaning, 8 translations, 2 sentences and more for Friedrich nietzsche. He worked in a part of classical studies called classical philology. A laughing stock or painful embarrassment. In a 29 March 1887 letter to Theodor Fritsch, Nietzsche mocked anti-Semites, Fritsch, Eugen Dühring, Wagner, Ebrard, Wahrmund, and the leading advocate of pan-Germanism, Paul de Lagarde, who would become, along with Wagner and Houston Chamberlain, the main official influences of Nazism. At first, he was a professor at the University of Basel. What happened remains unknown, but an often-repeated tale from shortly after his death states that Nietzsche witnessed the flogging of a horse at the other end of the Piazza Carlo Alberto, ran to the horse, threw his arms around its neck to protect it, then collapsed to the ground. Above all, do not mistake me for someone else. [216] Other scholars disagree that Nietzsche considered the material world to be a form of the will to power: Nietzsche thoroughly criticized metaphysics, and by including the will to power in the material world, he would simply be setting up a new metaphysics. "[121], Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche compiled The Will to Power from Nietzsche's unpublished notebooks and published it posthumously. Philosophiebibliographie: Friedrich Nietzsche – Zusätzliche Literaturhinweise zum Thema (Nähere bibliographische Angaben finden sich in den meisten der aufgeführten Bücher und Titel, siehe auch die Bibliographien bei den Weblinks.) In, Ewald, O. "Irgendwie, jedenfalls physiologisch. [294][295] Hermann Hesse, similarly, in his Narcissus and Goldmund presents two main characters as opposite yet intertwined Apollonian and Dionysian spirits. [146] Reflecting on unrequited love, Nietzsche considered that "indispensable ... to the lover is his unrequited love, which he would at no price relinquish for a state of indifference. It is a consequence of overcoming hurdles to one's actions and the fulfillment of the will. Alexander Nehamas writes in Nietzsche: Life as Literature of three ways of seeing the eternal recurrence: Nehamas concluded that, if individuals constitute themselves through their actions, they can only maintain themselves in their current state by living in a recurrence of past actions (Nehamas, 153). Beste Zitate von Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche in Englisch, Französisch, Italienisch, Polnisch, Portugiesisch und Spanisch. Nietzsche had a brilliant school and university career,culminating in May 1869 when he was called to a chair in classicalphilology at Basel. As Heidegger put the problem, "If God as the supra sensory ground and goal of all reality is dead if the supra sensory world of the ideas has suffered the loss of its obligatory and above it its vitalizing and upbuilding power, then nothing more remains to which man can cling and by which he can orient himself. [19], After his death, his sister Elisabeth became the curator and editor of Nietzsche's manuscripts. Nietzsche's father died from a brain ailment in 1849; Ludwig Joseph died six months later at age two. [282] Author Jack London wrote that he was more stimulated by Nietzsche than by any other writer. His friend and secretary Gast gave his funeral oration, proclaiming: "Holy be your name to all future generations! (For example, Elisabeth removed aphorism 35 of The Antichrist, where Nietzsche rewrote a passage of the Bible.) Nietzsche objects to Euripides' use of Socratic rationalism and morality in his tragedies, claiming that the infusion of ethics and reason robs tragedy of its foundation, namely the fragile balance of the Dionysian and Apollonian. Friedrich Nietzsche, Digitale Kritische Gesamtausgabe Werke und Briefe auf der Grundlage der Kritischen Gesamtausgabe Werke, herausgegeben von Giorgio Colli und Mazzino Montinari, Berlin/New York, Walter de Gruyter, 1967ff. In his short time in the military, he experienced much and witnessed the traumatic effects of battle. Hecker, Hellmuth. In Also Sprach Zarathustra, Nietzsche proclaimed that a table of values hangs above every great person. [173][174][175] Nietzsche rejected the idea of objective reality, arguing that knowledge is contingent and conditional, relative to various fluid perspectives or interests. "[137] At one point, Nietzsche becomes even more adamant about his Polish identity. In 1886, Nietzsche broke with his publisher Ernst Schmeitzner, disgusted by his antisemitic opinions. The "good man" of master morality is precisely the "evil man" of slave morality, while the "bad man" is recast as the "good man". [107] Langbehn assumed progressively greater control of Nietzsche until his secretiveness discredited him. Porter, James I. For him, women had to sacrifice themselves to the care and benefit of men. Mit frisch entdeckten Aufzeichnungen von Ida Overbeck neu ediert von, Constable, Marianne. [307][308][309] Nietzsche's influence on the works of Frankfurt School philosophers Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno[310] can be seen in the Dialectic of Enlightenment. At the core of his theory is a rejection of atomism—the idea that matter is composed of stable, indivisible units (atoms). [85] Rée accepted the idea and suggested that they be joined by his friend Nietzsche. In response, Rohde (then a professor in Kiel) and Wagner came to Nietzsche's defense. "[iii], Deussen cited the episode of Cologne's brothel in February 1865 as instrumental to understand the philosopher's way of thinking, mostly about women. "Nietzsche and Jung: The whole self in the union of opposites" (London and New York: Routledge, 2004), Magnus and Higgins, "Nietzsche's works and their themes", in, O'Flaherty, James C., Sellner, Timothy F., Helm, Robert M., "Studies in Nietzsche and the Classical Tradition" (, O'Flaherty, James C., Sellner, Timothy F., Helm, Robert M., "Studies in Nietzsche and the Judaeo-Christian Tradition" (University of North Carolina Press) 1985. [51][better source needed], In 1854, he began to attend Domgymnasium in Naumburg. [72][73], Nevertheless, Nietzsche served in the Prussian forces during the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871) as a medical orderly. Moreover, he planned the publication of the compilation Nietzsche contra Wagner and of the poems that made up his collection Dionysian-Dithyrambs. [123], "Eternal return" (also known as "eternal recurrence") is a hypothetical concept that posits that the universe has been recurring, and will continue to recur, for an infinite number of times across infinite time or space. In 1879, after a significant decline in health, Nietzsche had to resign his position at Basel. [55] The teacher who corrected the essay gave it a good mark but commented that Nietzsche should concern himself in the future with healthier, more lucid, and more "German" writers. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'friedrich' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. He spent his winters in the Italian cities of Genoa, Rapallo, and Turin and the French city of Nice. [104], On 6 January 1889, Burckhardt showed the letter he had received from Nietzsche to Overbeck. "[98] In December, Nietzsche began a correspondence with August Strindberg and thought that, short of an international breakthrough, he would attempt to buy back his older writings from the publisher and have them translated into other European languages. [184], Nietzsche saw slave morality as a source of the nihilism that has overtaken Europe. In March 1890, Franziska removed Nietzsche from the clinic and, in May 1890, brought him to her home in Naumburg. [255][256] Nietzsche called Dostoyevsky "the only psychologist from whom I have anything to learn. Pity stands opposed to the tonic emotions which heighten our vitality: it has a depressing effect. Nietzsche wrote of the affair in 1883, that he now felt "genuine hatred for my sister".[89]. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist, and Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history. '"[221], Nietzsche suggests that the universe is recurring over infinite time and space and that different versions of events that have occurred in the past may take place again, hence "all configurations that have previously existed on this earth must yet meet". After his death, Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche became the curator and editor of her brother's manuscripts. Their father was a Lutheran pastor in the German village of Röcken bei Lützen. Nietzsche presented this "master morality" as the original system of morality—perhaps best associated with Homeric Greece. [69] To this day, Nietzsche is still among the youngest of the tenured Classics professors on record. Afrikan Spir, a little-known Russian philosopher responsible for the 1873 Thought and Reality and Nietzsche's colleague, the famed historian Jacob Burckhardt, whose lectures Nietzsche frequently attended, began to exercise significant influence on him.[77]. [334] Aspects of Nietzsche's philosophy, especially his ideas of the self and his relation to society, run through much of late-twentieth and early twenty-first century thought. Ewige Wiederkunft. She edited his unpublished writings to fit her German ultranationalist ideology while often contradicting or obfuscating Nietzsche's stated opinions, which were explicitly opposed to antisemitism and nationalism. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher and writer. (Daybreak, 14) The diagnosis of syphilis has since been challenged and a diagnosis of "manic-depressive illness with periodic psychosis followed by vascular dementia" was put forward by Cybulska prior to Schain's study. That loss of strength in which suffering as such inflicts on life is still further increased and multiplied by pity. [333] In Memories, Dreams, Reflections, a biography transcribed by his secretary, he cites Nietzsche as a large influence. [283] Critics have suggested that the character of David Grief in A Son of the Sun was based on Nietzsche. He argued that this fusion has not been achieved since the ancient Greek tragedians. [75][76] On returning to Basel in 1870, Nietzsche observed the establishment of the German Empire and Otto von Bismarck's subsequent policies as an outsider and with a degree of skepticism regarding their genuineness. He was awarded an honorary doctorate by Leipzig University in March 1869, again with Ritschl's support. He turned away from the influence of Schopenhauer, and after he severed his social ties with Wagner, Nietzsche had few remaining friends. To comprehend eternal recurrence, and to not only come to peace with it but to embrace it, requires amor fati, "love of fate". He associated slave morality with the Jewish and Christian traditions, as it is born out of the ressentiment of slaves. In 1873, Nietzsche began to accumulate notes that would be posthumously published as Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks. He was regarded as one of the finest riders among his fellow recruits, and his officers predicted that he would soon reach the rank of captain. "[189] Nietzsche waged a philosophic war against the slave morality of Christianity in his "revaluation of all values" to bring about the victory of a new master morality that he called the "philosophy of the future" (Beyond Good and Evil is subtitled Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future).[190]. At first, he was a professor at the University of Basel. und Nietzsche Briefwechsel Kritische Gesamtausgabe, Berlin/New York, Walter de Gruyter, 1975ff., herausgegeben von Paolo D’Iorio. Overbeck was dismissed and Gast finally co-operated. The essays shared the orientation of a cultural critique, challenging the developing German culture suggested by Schopenhauer and Wagner.